Dmitri A. Gusev
HomeResearchImage Processing › Digital Halftoning

Digital Halftoning

1992 - present
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Digital halftoning is a category of image processing algorithms commonly used in image visualization and printing to either create the illusion of continuous tone when few intensity levels per primary colorant are available, or affect visibility and objectionability of noise artifacts relatively to direct continuous-tone reproduction.


  1. Yee S. Ng, Hwai T. Tai, Chung-hui Kuo and Dmitri A. Gusev, Advances in NexPress Digital Printing Technology, NIP23: The 23rd International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, Anchorage, Alaska (Sep. 16-21, 2007) pp. 489-493.
  2. Dmitri A. Gusev, Digital Halftoning Algorithms for Medical Imaging, in: C. T. Leondes (Ed.), Computational Methods in Biophysics, Biomaterials, Biotechnology and Medical Systems, Vol. I: Algorithm Techniques, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA (2003) pp. 127-191 (invited book chapter).
  3. Dmitri A. Gusev, Anti-Correlation Digital Halftoning, Ph.D. thesis, Computer Science Department, Indiana University, Bloomington (1999).
  4. Dmitri A. Gusev, Anti-Correlation Digital Halftoning by Generalized Russian Roulette, IS&T’s PICS ’99: The 53rd Annual Conference on Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems, Savannah, GA (Apr. 25-28, 1999) pp. 327-332.
  5. Eugene A. Sandler, Dmitri A. Gusev, Gregory Y. Milman, Hybrid Algorithms for Digital Halftoning and Their Application to Medical Imaging, Computers & Graphics, Vol. 21, No. 1, 6 (1997) pp. 69-78, 859 (erratum).
  6. Eugene A. Sandler, Gregory Y. Milman, Dmitri A. Gusev, New Methods for Computer-Aided High-Quality Printing of Halftone Images, Proceedings of the International Exhibition-Seminar COGRAPH-93 (Computational Geometry and Computer Graphics in Education), Nizhni Novgorod State University of Technology, Nizhni Novgorod (1993) p. 48 [in Russian].
  7. Dmitri A. Gusev, Mathematical Support for Solving Problems of Halftone Image Visualization and Printing, Thesis, Moscow Institute of Radioengineering, Electronics, and Automation, Moscow (1993) [in Russian].
  8. Dmitri A. Gusev, Gregory Y. Milman, Eugene A. Sandler, Delta-Sigma Modulation Devices Transforming Signal and Image Gradations, in: N. N. Evtikhiev (Ed.), Voprosy Kibernetiki, Ustroystva i Sistemy (MIREA Transactions), Moscow Institute of Radioengineering, Electronics, and Automation, Moscow (1992) pp. 13-17 [in Russian].

Patent applications

The following digital halftoning patent applications have been published at the Web site of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office:

  • Hwai-Tzuu Tai, Chung-Hui Kuo, Dmitri A. Gusev, Multilevel Halftone Screen and Sets Thereof, Application #20070236741 (Filed Mar. 31, 2006).
  • Hwai-Tzuu Tai, Chung-Hui Kuo, Dmitri A. Gusev, Method of Making a Multilevel Halftone Screen, Application #20070236736 (Filed Mar. 31, 2006).
  • Hwai-Tzuu Tai and Dmitri A. Gusev, Method and Apparatus for Multi-Color Printing Using a Rosette or Diamond Halftone Screen for One or More of the Colors, Application #20050243340 (Filed Apr. 30, 2004).
  • Hwai-Tzuu Tai and Dmitri A. Gusev, Method and Apparatus for Multi-Color Printing Using Hybrid Dot-Line Halftone Composite Screens, Application #20050243344 (Filed Apr. 30, 2004).


  • Kodak NexPress 2100, 2100 Plus, 2500 and M700 digital color presses, NexGlosser glossing unit, and NexPress Intelligent Color solution for 5-color printing (Aug. 1999 – May 2007). Designed pictorial halftone screen sets for 4-color and 5-color printing. Analyzed and evaluated numerous halftone screening options, including those for the NexPress M700 digital color press launched in April 2007. Researched advantages of contone and stochastic electrophotographic (EP) printing of satellite images. Built a software tool for computing geometric parameters of halftone screen sets. Developed an algorithm and a software tool for halftone screen generation.
  • Steepler’s Faxline for Windows (Apr. – May 1993). Developed a DLL (dynamic link library) for color and grayscale image dithering for a product manufactured and distributed by Steepler, Moscow, Russia.
  • VIDAR Medical Imaging System (Feb. – Mar. 1993). Designed and implemented algorithms for high-quality printing of medical images for a product developed by VIDAR Ltd., the Moscow branch of VIDAR Systems Corp., Herndon, VA.
  • PPRINT utility for DOS (Jan. 1993). Developed a program that performed image preprocessing on scanned images for newspaper ads. PPRINT was used and distributed by NITA, Moscow, Russia.
  • KADR Medical Imaging System for DOS (1992). Designed and implemented an image printing module for a product manufactured and distributed by MedInform, Moscow, Russia.

Publications about my work

  • Henry B. Freedman, Kodak NexPress Digital Color Printing – Offset Quality and Enhanced Screening Technology Create New Market Opportunities, Technology Watch, Vol. 11 (Fall 2006): “Staccato DX Screening uses the multi-level printing capability of the NexPress’s 600 dpi 8-bits per color image chain. The new screening process has a unique hybrid AM and FM structure consisting of variable dot size, dot shape, dot density, and dot positions. The structure simulates the receptive field structure of the human retina to achieve the desired image smoothness. It has achieved a printing consistency similar to other NexPress screens… One benefit of the NexPress Staccato DX FM Screening technology is an increase in detail over the traditional NexPress Classic screening method.”
  • Christian K. Schowalter (U. of Applied Sciences, Munich, Germany), Visual Comparison of Screening Quality in Digital Printing Systems, IS&T’s NIP18: 2002 International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, San Diego, CA (Sep. 29 – Oct. 4, 2002) pp. 682-686: “…Indigo UltraStream and Xeikon stand usually at the end of the rank order, followed by the newer Xerox, and the recently released NexPress.”

Technical reports

I co-authored a technical report on the subject in 2001, while working for NexPress Solutions. Prior to that, I published 2 other technical reports dealing with digital halftoning: